Cement & Concrete manufacture
In the short term, exposure to high levels of cement dust irritates the nose and throat. Longer term exposure could lead to occupational asthma. Mortar can also contain respirable crystalline silica (RCS).
RCS is also found in concrete and can lead to the development of silicosis or scarring of the lungs, which results in a loss of lung function and severe shortness of breath. Exposure to high concentrations can lead to death.